Monroe Doctrine Centennial at Exposition Park

I had never heard or seen anything about this event. It was an exposition that was thrown together rather quickly and would have been interesting to attend. The event was held at Exposition Park and the Memorial Coliseum was used in conjunction with the festivities. It was called the Monroe Doctrine Centennial at Exposition Park.

The first mention I was able to find regarding this event was in a Times article from 1922 about a motion picture exhibition that went under the name American Historical Revue and Motion Picture Industrial Exposition. It appears as if the motion picture exhibition part evolved into a component of the larger Monroe Doctrine Centennial though there were still numerous articles during the time the event was underway that continued to refer to it as the American Historical Revue and Motion Picture Industrial Exposition. The event was scheduled to run from July 2nd through July 28th. The end date was later changed to July 31st and then finally to August 4th.

[Note: The Monroe Doctrine was a statement James Monroe made to congress in which he stated that the United States would no longer tolerate European meddling in the Western hemisphere. He did this in 1823.]

The architect for all of the buildings was Charles H. Kyson. Kyson had worked in the movie industry as, in his words, “a picture architect or art director”[1] and received the commission to design the buildings at the end of January 1923 with the Centennial slated to open two days before the 4th of July. This means it was built in approximately five months which almost seems impossible.

Kyson wrote an article about this exposition for Southwest Builder & Contractor. Above is one of the photos that accompanied his article. It gives an impression of what the fairgrounds were like. Southwest Builder & Contractor was printed on paper whose quality was a step beneath newsprint.

Kyson said he knew his expo buildings would be compared to both the San Diego and San Francisco Expositions, held in the previous decade, so he ruled out ornate buildings, the Spanish baroque in particular, and “Consequently in searching about for an architectural precedent as a basis for this grouping of buildings it occurred to me that the Pueblo type of architecture, as used by the Indians of the Southwest, might serve as a basis with certain artistic amplification.”[2]

Los Angeles Public Library photo

In Southwest Builder & Contractor Kyson stated that he had learned in the motion picture industry “to continually strive for the picturesque. There I found the grouping of light and shade was of prime importance in attaining artistic results. In designing motion picture scenery it was continually necessary to group all sets with the quaint and picturesque always in mind. I utilized the same principles in designing the architecture of the exposition and it will be noted that interesting light and shade planes are obtained by an irregular massing of the buildings which also give the quaintness of the twisting streets of Spain and Central America.”[3]

Kyson went on to say that many of the buildings were done in clay models to judge the massing and see how light would play upon the forms. He urged architects who only viewed their buildings in an elevated drawing to experiment with models.

Los Angeles Public Library photo

Kyson continued by saying, “I am frank to say that I do not believe that I could have designed the exposition in the way that it has been done, had it not been for my experience in motion pictures which I consider invaluable to me. While in motion pictures only fragments of buildings or interiors are designed, in the angle from which the camera sees them, they are absolutely realistic. In two or three years a picture architect designs more buildings than the average architect would in five average lifetimes. He sees a vision puts it on paper and within less than two weeks sees it up. In time he achieves a surety of technique, an artistic conviction of the correctness of a design which give him confidence in the artistic quality of his work.”[4]

On opening day, the day’s events included: the opening ceremonies, a formal welcome for Latin American diplomats & dignitaries, the selection of the Centennial Queen, a ball, tableauxs and fireworks.

The Latin American diplomats were toasted at the Montmarte garden cafe situated on the grounds. One of the featured speakers at the event was Rufus B. Von Kleinsmid who was president of USC. Also in attendance were notable Los Angeles citizens and numerous cinema stars. After all the toasts and speeches were finished the assembled guests walked over to the coliseum where a huge stage had been set up on the east side of the field. It was there that the audience witnessed “five tableaux interspersed with three enormous and artistic ballets directed by Theodore Kosloff.”[5]

Los Angeles Public Library photo

One tableaux depicted the discovery of America with silent film star Hobart Bosworth portraying Columbus. [Note: another report stated Bosworth played Washington. Maybe, he played both?] The second depicted Indian life while the third centered around the saving of the Mission San Diego “from an attack of hostile Indians.” The fourth depicted George Washington assuming command of the continental armies and the fifth depicted Lincoln emancipating the slaves.

At midnight, Miss Geraldine Kemp, who had been selected Queen of the Centennial, pressed a button and started a firework’s show which signaled the opening of the Centennial for the general public. Evidently, this first day was only for invited guests and the elites of the community.

The tableauxs were from the mind of Emil de Recat who had an international reputation for producing this sort of thing — the spectacle. Kosloff was known in the dance field as being an advocate for interpretive dance. E.F. Carrathers, of the World Amusement Services Association, was the man selecting the acts for the fair. He was the man who tracked down de Recat and Kosloff. He also recruited opera singers for the fair and looked to the operatic field — feeling their voices would carry the furthest in the enormous Coliseum.

Carrathers also entered into a contract with Tom Kierman, his wife and their group of trick riders to perform at the Coliseum under the banner name of Frontier Days. These trick riders were suppose to invoke William F. Cody and his Wild West Days. Fox film star Buck Jones joined them on July 25th for a special one night only performance.

Yet, there was trouble on the horizon for the Centennial. On July 7, five days after it had opened those in charge were trying to figure out a way to bring more people through the gates. The directors of the fair thought they should get the word out that the fair was a good place for dancing, a nice meal and entertainment but the public wasn’t seeing the fair that way. The public most likely saw it as too highfalutin. Some of the sponsors blamed themselves for the overall “refinement” of the Monroe Doctrine Centennial.

Sculptor David Edstrom, who worked on the Centennial, said, “People grow tired of being serious and an exposition must embody features which will amuse the workday folk of the world and make them forget the drudgery of life for a while.”[6]

So, thrills and excitement were taken up a notch and a parade filled with Hollywood glitz took place on July 16th.

An American Legion band lead the parade along this route: The parade started at 12th and Broadway and proceeded north to 7th Street. At 7th Street the parade turned East and proceeded to Main Street where it turned South. It continued South all the way down to Jefferson at which point it turned West and continued to Figueroa. At Figueroa it turned South and ended its route at Exposition Park.

The parade included a moving Emile de Recat tableaux which was situated on a number of floats. Tom Mix and his horse Tony led a series of western motion picture players. A fleet of bathing beauties waved at spectators from a series of cars. Mary Pickford’s Rosita coaches had a spot in the parade’s line up. A replica of the covered wagon from The Covered Wagon was the contribution from Famous Players Lasky. Principal Pictures supplied an enormous typewriter with its film stars on each of its keys and Warner Bros., Universal, Ince and Louis B. Mayer also had floats in the parade.

The turnaround occurred on July 19th when 90,000 people attended the Centennial. This surpassed the previous record of 70,000. One of the big draws must have been the stars who appeared on behalf of the Goldwyn Studios and acted as hosts or hostesses at the Goldwyn bungalow. Some of the stars were: Blanche Sweet, Lew Cody, Claire Windsor, George Walsh, Helen Chadwick, Edmund Lowe, Bessie Love, Patsy Ruth Miller, Marie Prevost, Lionel Barrymore, Tyrone Power (Sr.), Eleanor Boardman, Lucien Littlefield, Ford Sterling and Elmo Lincoln. Director King Vidor and writers June Mathis and Eleanor Glynn also attended the Goldwyn event.

I would have gone just to see Elmo Lincoln and Eleanor Glynn!

On July 23 the Los Angeles Times reported it was Policeman and Fireman’s Day. Not only were re-enactments of the fifty most exciting rescues that fireman had performed in the history of Los Angeles scheduled but a fifty foot tower had been erected on the Centennial grounds for firemen to show off their prowess under the direction of their Captain Ernest Rhoades.

Another image from Southwest Builder & Contractor. I do like it.

Prior to the fair’s opening, in June, a half dollar coin was issued to commemorate the fair and the first coin was presented to President Warren G. Harding. Harding stated he would like to visit the fair which had to create excitement among the Centennial’s organizers and community leaders.

Below is a list of scheduled theme days put out before the fair began but what actually occurred at the fair on any given day may have been different.

July 3: South America Day and Press Day.

July 4: Independence Day and Monroe Doctrine Day.

July 5: Jackie Coogan Day. Coogan would be at the exposition to great his fans.

July 6: Woman’s Day and Santa Barbara Day.

July 7: World Traders’ Day.

July 8: Father’s Day and Paramount Day.

July 9: Educational Day.

July 10: Orange County Day.

July 11: Empire State Day.

July 12: Grotto Day.

July 13: Inglewood Day.

July 14: Veterans Day.

July 15: Venice Day.

July 16: Rotary Club Day.

July 17: Chicago Day and Illinois Day.

July 18: Riverside Day.

July 19: Petroleum Day.

July 20: Long Beach Day.

July 21: Mexican Day.

July 22: Santa Monica Day.

July 23: Actor’s Fund Day.

July 24: Pioneers’ Day.

July 25: Iowa State Day.

July 26: it is unclear what day it was. The cities of Burbank and San Fernando along with the Optimists’ Club, the Womens’ Club and the Retail Clothier’s Association were in charge of that day’s festivities.

July 27: Boy Scout Day.

Los Angeles Public Library photo

One of the goals of the Centennial’s administration, all along, was to have President Warren G. Harding make an appearance at the Centennial. A newspaper article dated July 27, 1923 stated the American Historical Revue and Motion Picture Industrial Exposition were planning a “pioneer days parade” for President Harding and his wife. The first couple were scheduled to visit Los Angeles on August 2nd for the parade.

Harding who had been on a West coast trip that had taken him to Alaska, Oregon and California became ill during its final stretch and was in San Francisco staying at the Palace Hotel and suffering from Ptomaine poisoning (food poisoning). On July 30, 1923 it was announced that Harding was cancelling his entire California program on the advice of his doctors. The next day, July 31, 1923 Los Angeles cancelled its preparations for the president’s visit including the parade. On August 2, 1923, at 7:30 p.m., Harding died and Calvin Coolidge became president.

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Charles H. Kysor was born May 17, 1883. He was the son of Ezra Kysor the first acknowledged architect in the city of Los Angeles. Ezra Kysor was the architect of the Pico House and the Merced Theater which still stand and Ezra Kysor was an early partner of Ocatvius Morgan who had a big impact in Los Angeles.

Charles Kysor attended public schools and then Throop Polytechnic Institute in Pasadena. He went on to study at Columbia’s School of Architecture in New York City and followed that up with two years in Paris and Rome.

The 1904 Los Angeles city directory lists Charles H. Kysor as a draftsman for Morgan & Walls and living at 323 S. Bonnie Brae. Who’s Who in the Pacific Southwest states he began his architectural practice in 1911.

He married Blythe (née Slaughter) in 1907 and they had a daughter named Harleigh in 1909.

In 1913 he had an office, number 511, in the Wright & Callender Building. [So many architects had offices there I’ve often wondered why? What drew them to the building? I would like to find out.]

Charles H. Kysor’s voter registration card from 1916 stated he lived at 309 S. Hoover Street, was a republican and an architect. His draft registration card dated September 12, 1918 lists his last name as Kysor, his home address as 416 S. Hoover and his employer as Famous Players Lasky Corporation. He was physically described as tall with a medium built and with grey eyes and dark brown hair. His nearest relative was listed as Blythe T. Kysor.

According to the LAPL card index file Kysor changed his name to Kyson during World War I. At the time the United States was experiencing a wave of anti-German sentiment so it was probably a smart business move.

In 1920 the Kyson family were renting a home at 7266 Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles.

Kyson had an office in Hollywood at 6040 Hollywood Blvd. He was appointed department head for the Sets & Scenery department at Thomas Ince Studios in March of 1920. It was announced on December 22, 1920 that he had been elected president of the Art Director’s Association for 1921. In 1927 he was the president of the Architects League of Hollywood.

 

In 1930 Charles and Blythe owned a home at 2433 Horseshoe Canyon Road which was valued at $5,000 and he was still working as an architect. Ten years later their situation had changed drastically. They were renting a home at 114 1/2 West 84th Street in Los Angeles. He was working as an instructor and in 1939 had an income of $800 according to the 1940 census.

Blythe Kyson died on March 1, 1947. Twenty days later on March 21, 1947 Charles H. Kyson married Barbara S. Dockar. Kyson, evidently, liked being married.

Kyson designed many buildings and I’ve found two buildings of note. The first was the Bryson Apartments on Wilshire Boulevard. He did the Bryson Apartments under his old name: Charles Kysor. The other building of note he designed was listed in his obituary. It is the Wee Kirk O’Heather Chapel at Forest Lawn in Glendale. Kyson died on July 16, 1954.

From American Architect.

This is from the LAPL card file index. I removed his social security number with Photoshop.

He’s buried at Forest Lawn in the Hollywood Hills.

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[1] Kyson, C. H. (1923, June 29). Pueblo type of architecture furnished motif for Monroe Centennial Exposition. Southwest Builder and Contractor, 61(26), 34-36.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Crowds throng gates as centennial opens. (1923, July 3). Los Angeles Times, p. II1.

[6] Plan “pep” for centennial. (1923, July 7). Los Angeles Times, p. II1.

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SOURCES

Charles H. Kyson, native Angeleno architect dies. (1954, July 17). Los Angeles Times, p. 7.

Church being planned. (1928, January 8). Los Angeles Times, p. E3.

Crowds throng gates as centennial opens. (1923, July 3). Los Angeles Times, p. II1.

Film production cost to be talk subject at meet. (1921, March 21). Los Angeles Herald, p. B3.

Filmland will parade tonight. (1923, July 16). Los Angeles Times, p. II1.

Gets appointment. (1920, March 15). Los Angeles Herald, p. B9.

Harding to have first revue coin. (1923, June 6). Los Angeles Times, p. II10.

Kyson, C.H. (1923, June 29). Pueblo type of architecture furnished motif for Monroe Centennial Exposition. Southwest Builder and Contractor, 61(26), 34-36.

Kyson, C.H. (1931, April). Advertising and advertising. American Architect, 139(2594), 48-49, 110, 112, 114.

Mounted star will do stunts at exposition. (1923, July 25). Los Angeles Times, p. II2.

Obtain best for pageant. (1923, June 10). Los Angeles Times, p. II7.

Pioneer days to be recalled in Harding parade. (1923, July 27). Los Angeles Times, p. I14.

Plan “pep” for centennial. (1923, July 7). Los Angeles Times, p. II1.

Plans for Harding’s reception abandoned. (1923, July 31). Los Angeles Times, p. I1.

President Harding cancels entire California program. (1923, July 30). Los Angeles Times, p. I1.

Program of events at Centennial. (1923, July 2). Los Angeles Times, p. IV5.

Radios: art director elect. (1920, December 22). Los Angeles Times, p. III4.

Record exposition crowd. (1923, July 20). Los Angeles Times, p. II1.

Revue coins in heavy demand. (1923, July 23). Los Angeles Times, p. II1.

Who’s who in the Pacific Southwest. (1913). Los Angeles: Times Mirror Publishing.

*The four photos of the Centennial are used with the permission of the Los Angeles Public Library.

*1920, 1930 and 1940 census records, his draft registration card, voter registration card, Blythe Kyson death information and the marriage record for Kyson and Dockar were all found through Ancestory.com.

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Note: I have a book coming out on March 11, 2019 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It’s 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

Ward & Blohme

For a Heritage Conservation class I’m taking I needed to find information on a particular building located at the corner of Alvarado and Seventh Streets in Los Angeles. This building was built for the Owl Drug Company which had many stores throughout the Los Angeles area in the 1920s. One of the first clues I found regarding the building was this building permit.

It gave me two leads: 1) It told me who the architects were and 2) from the date on the building permit I was able to locate this article in Southwest Builder and Contractor.

This is the building I was interested in learning more about. It’s only two stories but it’s a behemoth of a building.

There are certain aspects of the building that are lost from a distance but seen close up the beauty of the building is more apparent.

The building has great three dimensional owls adorning the facade.

A closer view of one.

The building also has two marquees above the entrances that lead to the second floor on Alvarado and Seventh Streets.

 

They are still there and still intact. On this one you can see the crisp metal underneath because the paint has chipped off near the bottom of the inside column.

The building has four bays on the Alvarado side and five bays on the Seventh Street side. Some of the bays have these beautiful ornate windows.

This is the Seventh Street entrance. In the 1950s the building was owned by Boris and Dora Bilak.

The offices on the second floor look like this.

and this.

I found this to be a nice original detail.

As for the architects I found more information about one than the other and I only found that information because the firm was involved with the Panama-Pacific International Exhibition (PPIE) held in San Francisco in 1915. The one I found the most information about is Clarence Ward.

Architect & Engineer announced that Ward had been tapped for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition.

That’s him — in the middle on the right. Note: This is just one page of the architects who worked on the fair.

While Bernard Maybeck would design the Palace of Fine Arts, which still stands in San Francisco, this blurb from the book The Story of the Exposition clearly states that Ward’s partner Blohme also worked on the building.

From Architect & Engineer: It sounds like the PPIE eventually required more time than Ward expected.

As someone interested in heritage conservation I found this news brief from Architect & Engineer alarming. What were the landmarks that were torn down?

The building Ward & Blohme designed for the PPIE.

Here it is under construction. This photograph is illuminating because it gives the viewer a sense of the building’s scale.

In a San Francisco Chronicle newspaper article the design of the Machinery Palace was stated to be based on a Roman arch motif similar to the great Roman baths of Hadrian. Three seventy-five foot wide naves were inside the building and they stretched out over nine hundred feet in length. From the floor to the ceiling it was 100 feet high and the building had eight acres of floor space. The four columns in front of the building were six feet in diameter and sixty feet in height.

Edison? It speaks to how well he was thought of in his time.

Here’s an old postcard with an image of the building upon it.

Then there is this. It’s the Netherlands Building at the PPIE in an advertisement for Spanish tile. Under the photograph on the right side it says Ward & Blohme, Architects.

It’s unclear if Ward & Blohme were the architects of this building. The above image is from the publication The Architect (January 1916) but in the book The Story of the Exposition, in the chapter titled The Empire of the Netherlands, it states, “The designs for the building came from The Netherlands, and were by W. Kromhout of Rotterdam. Construction was supervised by Ward & Blohme of San Francisco, and the interior decorations were by Herman Rosse assisted by Hans Ledeboer.” Anything is possible but this building doesn’t look like anything else by Ward & Blohme.

That being said in the June 1914 issue of Architect & Engineer on page 115 was this blurb: “Architects Ward and Blohme have completed plans for the Netherlands building, to be erected on the Panama-Pacific Exposition at a probable cost of $70,000.”

This was also a mystery to me. If you go to the Stanford Memorial Chapel website it states that the architect of the building is Charles A. Coolidge and there is no mention of Ward & Blohme.

I contacted Stanford and the university archivist said, “Ward and Blohme made designs for the renovation following the 1906 earthquake.” They even have blueprints with Ward & Blohme’s moniker upon them so Ward & Blohme did have a hand in the church after the earthquake but Charles A. Coolidge is the architect of record.

American Architect did not feature a lot of west coast architects in its early years. In 1918 though they featured architects Ward & Blohme and many of the fire stations they designed throughout San Francisco.

What’s that thing surrounded by the railing? A foot bath? It can’t be a bidet unless firemen in 1918 were very uninhibited.

In 1911 Ward & Blohme entered a competition for the San Francisco Sub-Treasury Building. They lost.

What is amazing regarding the Sub-Treasury Building competition is that many of the big San Francisco architectural firms entered: Ward & Blohme, Bliss & Faville, Coxhead & Coxhead, John G. Howard, Bakewell & Brown and Lewis P. Hobart yet none of them won. They all lost to somebody from Cleveland named J. Milton Dyer.

From an October 1911 issue of Architect & Engineer.

This was Ward & Blohme’s entry into the 1918 Sacramento state building competition.

Ward & Blohme also lost this competition. The eventual winners were Weeks & Day a very prolific San Francisco architectural firm. Weeks & Day designed the State Theater in downtown Los Angeles.

Ward & Blohme struck out again with the above city hall design.

This was Ward & Blohme’s entry into the San Francisco City Hall competition. Bakewell & Brown won the competition and the magnificent (that’s the only appropriate word for it) building they designed still stands in San Francisco.

This is Clarence Ward’s bio from Men of California 1926.

Clarence Ward’s bio from Who’s Who in California 1928/1929.

This is one of the clubs the firm designed and Ward was a member of the Family Club.

Clarence Ward wrote an article for Architect & Engineer in April 1912 regarding the beautification of cities. In the article Ward’s major suggestions were more gardens and more flower boxes.

I included the City Beautiful essay above because of the “letter to the editor” below from Carl Ward. In it he attempts to correct the first line in his essay which he incorrectly attributed to Longfellow. The correct author of the line Ward quoted is William Cullen Bryant. Bryant was a nineteenth century American poet and the line Ward misattributed was from Bryant’s poem Thanatopsis. It’s the tone of his letter below which is unclear to me. Is Ward angry at the editor(s) for failing to notice the error or is he attempting to let people know that he is aware of the error or both?

Letter to the editor from Clarence Ward.

This bio information about Blohme is from The Art of the Exposition. It’s not much but it’s something.

J. Harry Blohme was an active member of the architectural club in 1911.

Blohme was the Secretary and Treasurer of the San Francisco Society of Architects and on two other committees in 1915-1916.

J. Harry Blohme was a director of the San Francisco chapter of the AIA.

That was all I had found regarding Blohme. He was a ghost.

Then, I went and looked through census records and was able to find more information about him. The following information was found based on the two lines in the Art of the Exposition biography which states “J. Harry Blohme, San Francisco. Born in San Francisco in 1878.”

John Harry Blohme was born December 25, 1878. His parents were John Blohme and Gesine Meyer. Both were born in Germany. I was unable to locate the 1880, 1890 or 1930 census for J. Harry Blohme but I’m guessing it’s because his last name was incorrectly spelled by the census taker. In the 1900 census Blohme was living at 568 12th Street in Oakland, California. He was listed as being 21 and his occupation was “salesman architect.” According to the census he was a boarder in a boarding house but I suspect it was an apartment house. There were forty-five other occupants at this address and one was a family of five (the Knutsens), a family of four (the Lafleurs), a family of three (the Westovers), another family of four (the Mouritzs), a Mr. & Mrs. Smith, a Mr. & Mrs. Warnock, a Mr. & Mrs. Kelly, another family of four (the Blumenthals) along with seventeen other individuals. If it was a boarding house it was a BIG boarding house.

On September 24, 1903 Blohme married Tillie Richter. Tillie appears to have been a nickname. Her real name was Mathilda Dorothy Richter. In 1910 Blohme and his wife were living with her parents and her brothers: Arthur and Walter. The census states they had been married for six years and his age was 35 and her age was 30.

Blohme’s 1918 draft card states the Blohmes were living at 1647 Seventh Avenue in Oakland, California and that he had a medium build, was medium height and had light brown hair and grey eyes. He is listed as an architect with Ward & Blohme and his age is listed as 39.

In the 1920 census Blohme and his wife were still living with her mother and her brother (Walter) but this time the address was given as 1607 Seventh Avenue. His occupation is listed as an architect. His age is listed as 40. Tillie’s age is listed as 35.

The 1940 census says the couple were living at 637 East 17th Street in Oakland, California and had lived at this same address in 1935. They owned this home and the value of the home was $2,500. The census states he did not attend school or college and then in the next line it states he attended college (4th year). The couple lived alone. [The Blohme’s did not have any children.] J. Harry Blohme’s age was listed as 61 and Tillie’s age was listed as 50. Tillie was shaving years off her age at this point.

J. Harry Blohme died on August 15, 1940 in Reno, Nevada.

He’s Hercules. Best poster EVER for a world’s fair. Perham W. Nahl was the artist.

_______________________________________________________________________

SOURCES

Bakewell, J. Jr. (1912, July). The San Francisco city hall competition. Architect & Engineer, 29(3), 46-78.

Bearwald, T. (Ed.). (1913). Year Book San Francisco Architectural Club. San Francisco: Sunset Publishing House.

Cahill, B.J.S. (1918, October). Sacramento state building competition. The Architect, 16(4), plate 50.

Church floor, The. (1913, October). Architect & Engineer, 34(3), 137.

Clarence Ward resigns. (1911, December). Architect & Engineer, 27(2), 99.

Competition for San Francisco sub-treasury building. (1911, June). Architect & Engineer, 25(2), 39-51.

Machinery building at Panama-Pacific Exposition. (1912, October). Architect & Engineer, 30(3), 113.

Neuhaus, E. (1915). The art of the exposition. San Francisco: Paul Elder and Company.

No intention to slight Mr. Bryant. (1912, June). Architect & Engineer, 29(2), 212.

Roofed with large Spanish tile. (1916, January). The Architect, 11(1), 8.

Store and office building. (1923, March 30). Southwest Builder and Contractor, 61(13), 18.

To break ground New Year’s day. (1912, December 15). San Francisco Chronicle, p. 33.

Todd, F. M. (1921). The story of the exposition. New York: Putnam.

Two of Ward & Blohme’s buildings. (1911, October). Architect & Engineer, 26(3), 68-69.

Various United States Census records along with Blohme’s World War I draft registration card and Blohme and Richter’s marriage license all found via Ancestry.com

Ward, C. R. (1912, April). Suggestions for creating a city beautiful. Architect & Engineer, 28(3), 66-67.

Ward & Blohme. (1918, December 18). American Architect, 114(2243), plates 187-193.

Ward and Blohme. (1914, June). Architect & Engineer, 37(2), 115.

Who’s Who in California 1928/29. (1929). San Francisco: Who’s Who Publishing Company.

Wolfe, W. C. (1926). Men of California. San Francisco: Western Press Reporter.

World’s fair commission. (1911, August). Architect & Engineer, 26(1), 101.

World’s fair notes. (1912, May). Architect & Engineer, 29(1), 101.

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Note: I have a book coming out on March 11, 2019 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It’s 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

Lummis House

The Lummis House wasn’t what I expected. I first saw the house as I sat perched, in my car, next to a stop sign at the Avenue 43 off ramp. I could vaguely see the house off in the distance through a chain link fence. My first impression of the house wasn’t positive but once I rounded the corner — and saw the open gates below — my impression changed.

You come upon the house slowly. It’s down a sandy path and obscured by trees.

Then, there it is. Isolated like an oasis from the nearby Pasadena freeway and the densely inhabited neighborhood that surrounds it.

I walked down to the end of the house and took a picture of the house from the west side with the turret prominently centered in the picture.

The front doors have been exposed to the elements for so long that they have taken on a grey tint.

There are number of brochures available at the Lummis House.

According to the brochures the house was begun in 1897 and Lummis used stones from the nearby arroyo to build the house. Supposedly, he built the entire place himself but that seems unbelievable. Even one of the brochures contradicts that and states Lummis was helped by Native Americans. The home is also known as El Alisal which means “place of the sycamores.” Lummis, who had a big ego, claimed his house was “built to last a thousand years.” The reality is the house was lucky to have survived into the latter half of the 20th century because the home was neglected after his death due to the public’s lack of interest in him and the house.

In Edwin R. Bingham’s book, Charles F. Lummis: Editor of the Southwest, Bingham states Lummis bought the land for his home in 1895 but he didn’t start work for three years then spent a decade and a half building the house. The front entrance is six feet wide and seven feet high and each door weighs almost a thousand pounds which sounds possible but a bit of an exaggeration. The museo’s floor is concrete as are most of the floors throughout the house. Bingham also states that Lummis saw the construction of his home as a way to keep his physique in shape.

In Dudley Gordon’s book, Crusader in Corduroy this story was recounted, “Once when Lummis was working on a trestle as he placed boulders in the wall of his home, a scholarly visitor from back East made a call. The astonished gentleman asked, “Why don’t you have a laborer do that kind of work?” Lummis replied, “This is my gymnasium. It keeps me fit.” The caller suggested, “Why don’t you play golf?” Lummis exclaimed, “This leaves a mark. And it will do so for centuries.”

The Lummis quote I find most amusing is from Bingham’s book and it is, “Any fool can write a book, and most of them do, but it takes brains to build a house.”

Numerous writers have stated Sumner Hunt was the architect of Lummis’ home but this building permit from the city of Los Angeles, which was filled out by Lummis himself, clearly states that Lummis is the architect of El Alisal. If there was ever an architect who worked with Lummis on the home — he was forgotten by Lummis — who takes full credit for the house according to this March 24, 1926 document.*

*Maybe, Lummis is claiming to be the architect of just the addition?

Lummis had a big personality and appeared to have an unending amount of energy. According to Charles Fisher’s book Highland Park, Lummis attended Harvard from 1877-1881 but failed to graduate. He was short, five foot tall, but liked to engage in athletics. [One of the Lummis brochures contradicts Fisher’s height claim. The Lummis Home and Garden brochure states Lummis was five foot, seven inches.] He suffered a stroke at the age of 27 and it was thought the stroke was a result of working long hours at the Los Angeles Times. Fisher states that Lummis was viewed as immodest, by some, because while working on his home Lummis was often seen wearing thin shirts and shorts.

Lummis in a green corduroy ensemble. Evidently, Lummis liked to wear the same outfit whenever he ventured out as a man about town. He had a favorite green corduroy suit, according to Fisher’s book, which is a totally inappropriate garment for the Southern California heat. Lummis would complete his Harvard-to-cowboy-get-up by wearing a sombrero and a red sash in the Spanish style. I have no idea what the Spanish style is but I suspect it can be defined as “Look at me.” Courtesy of the Braun Research Library Collection, Autry Museum, Los Angeles: p. 32537.

Perry Worden, who was president of the Southern California Historical Society didn’t have an especially high opinion of Lummis. Worden stated Lummis had an abnormally developed ego, an “intolerable conceit in staking out the entire Southwest for his exclusive literary exploitation,” and a “voluptuous vanity” combined with “freakish attire, and often boorish manners.”[i]

Below is the Lummis entry From Who’s Who in California 1928-1929.

What’s up with his hair!? It’s very Sideshow Bob-ish. Notice that Lummis is a honorary member of the Davenport, Iowa Academy of Sciences. I grew up in Davenport, Iowa. I don’t think they have an Academy of Sciences anymore.

The second column of his Who’s Who entry.

Lummis was interested in saving the old California missions and he formed the Landmark’s Club for that purpose. Architects Arthur Benton and Sumner Hunt were two of the organization’s directors. I scanned this page from the January 1904 issue of OUT WEST.

This room measures 28 feet by 16 feet. It is the Museo room.

In the previous photograph of the Museo room there is a bench, covered with a serape, on the left side of the photo. You can just see the arm rest, part of the serape and part of the leg of the bench. This is the window above the bench which contains photographs that were produced as slides and inserted into it. This was done when the home was built.

One of the images in the window.

Looking out of the turret windows.

His desk.

Lummis worked in the publishing and writing fields throughout his life. He wrote books, worked as the city editor of The Los Angeles Times and was the editor and publisher of Out West and this publication The Land of Sunshine.

The master bedroom.

Lummis was married three times and divorced three times. The text on the fireplace means what you think it means.

His second wife, Eva Douglas, came to see Lummis as a “roving Lothario” according to Mark Thompson’s book American Character: The Curious Life of Charles Fletcher Lummis. She read his diaries and was able to decipher his secret code regarding his mistresses (which he mentioned in the diaries). She fled to San Francisco with her children and was taken in by Phoebe Appleton Hearst. A noisy, scandalous divorce proceeding was on the horizon until Lummis sent a letter to his wife and Hearst detailing how he planned to sue Phoebe Hearst for $100,000 due to his loss of “consortium.” He also planned on seeking damages from Hearst for kidnapping his children and turning them against him. After his written threats were delivered a quiet settlement was quickly reached.

The 1950s bathroom next to the master bedroom.

The large kitchen looks like it was last updated in the 1950s.

The peristyle on the patio side of his home.

His initials are on the door. I see the C for Charles and the L for Lummis but I’m not seeing an F for Fletcher. The iron work was done by Maynard Dixon.

I admire Lummis for what he accomplished in his life. He was the force behind the construction of the Southwest Museum and worked for the better treatment of Native Americans. He built an amazing house and sought to preserve California’s missions when few people cared about them. Lummis made a positive difference in Southern California and “The Land of Sunshine,” as he referred to it, is a better place because of him.

Lummis died on November 25, 1928 from brain cancer. He was sixty-nine years old. His ashes are buried within one of the walls of his home.

There is a KCET ARTBOUND documentary about Charles Lummis called Charles Lummis: Reimagining the American West. It can be found on YouTube and it’s 55 minutes.

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SOURCES

Bingham, E.R. (1955). Charles F. Lummis: editor of the Southwest. San Marino: Huntington Library.

Fisher, C. J. (2008). Highland Park. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing.

Gordon, D. (1972). Crusader in corduroy. Los Angeles: Cultural Assets Press.

The Landmark’s Club. (1904, January). Out West, 20(1), 466.

Thompson, M. (2001). American character: the curious life of Charles Fletcher Lummis. New York: Arcade Publishing.

The photo of Lummis in his corduroy suit is Courtesy of the Braun Research Library Collection, Autry Museum, Los Angeles: p.32537.

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[i] Bingham, E.R. (1955). Charles F. Lummis: Editor of the Southwest. San Marino: Huntington Library.

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

 

Frank Lloyd Wright in Mason City, Iowa

Mason City, Iowa has two major FLW tourist spots. Mason City is approximately two and ½ hours northwest of Iowa City, Iowa. Frank Lloyd Wright’s only existing hotel is located in Mason City along with Frank Lloyd Wright’s Stockman House.

According to the newspaper given out on the tour, which is called Wright on the Park, the building opened in 1910. The hotel portion was in the center and “above” on the second and third floors. The hotel section opened in November 1910. The bank was on the east side and opened in December of 1910. These first five “pages” are from the Western Architect, December 1911.

I am a HUGE fan of FLW’s architecture but not a fan of his writing style. It’s too florid for me. Surprisingly, his text, here, is coherent and readable.

This configuration stood for eleven years until the bank failed in 1921. The bank went into foreclosure in 1926.

This is from the Wright on the Park newspaper. Once the bank failed the bank portion was remodeled and stores occupied the space instead. The bank’s solid horizontal wall was removed and replaced with plate glass. The photo depicts what the building looked like after the remodeling. The hotel served as an apartment building between the years 1972 and 1989! Eventually, the city bought the building and the building closed.

When the hotel reopened in 2011 it looked like this. It underwent a $18.5 million dollar restoration.

In the FLW text above, from Western Architect, Wright said Mason City was, “A city wherein most of the buildings are rather cheerless in character, so quiet colored ceramic inlays were used to brighten the exterior.” He did this because “The eyes of a modern American community are starved for color, as a rule…”

Me, at the registration desk. I was buying a key chain, a refrigerator magnet and lots of postcards.

This window is in the lobby of the hotel.

This area was the original location of the dining room.

This skylight was found installed in a Mason City resident’s home. It was brought back to the hotel when the hotel was brought back from the dead.

These doors are original to the building.

The bank portion is now used as an event space for weddings, meetings or dinners.

This space is in the fourth page of the Western Architect article. You can re-configure it in your head if you put the stained glass window on the opposite wall. Notice the skylight above in both photos. The docent said this area is used for registration or check-in when it is used for events.

The Stockman House is so wonderful inside. I wish I could find a house similar to this to live in. It was just beautiful. Photographs don’t do it justice.

The living room from a postcard I bought at the Stockman House. I would toss that spinning wheel thing-y but everything else would stay if I were ever to move in.

One of the bedrooms from a postcard I bought at the Stockman House.

This statue of Frank Lloyd Wright is across the street from the hotel.

Many of the photographs in this post were taken by my friend Bob Graef. I’m always happy to go places with him because he’s an accommodating traveling companion and a great photographer.

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

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Wright, F. L. (1911, December). City national bank of Mason City, Iowa. Western Architect, 17(12), 105 plus plates.

Wright on the Park. (no date). (no publisher).

Visalia, Bakersfield and Fresno

I went to an Odd Fellows’ conference in Visalia, California. It was the first time I had gone to Grand Lodge.

The sessions were mainly centered around the business affairs of the Grand Lodge.

They gave out book bags at the registration desk.

This is Dave Reed’s banner. He explained what everything on the banner meant. Unfortunately, I’ve already forgotten but I like that big Shazzam bolt.

This was on the final night when Mel Astrahan was installed as Grand Master. That’s Mel, with the fringed collar, second from the left. The ballroom was filled with California Odd Fellows’ glitterati that night. Ernie Olson is in the red dress with the fringed top. She’s the new president of the Rebekah Assembly. Peter Sellers is down on the far right in the front row (with a red tie) and Barry Prosk stands behind him in a suite and red tie. I can’t go into too much detail about the Grand Lodge because I’m not supposed to so I won’t.

On my way to Visalia I drove through Bakersfield and found a nice theater.

I couldn’t have asked for a better day to take pictures.

It was a Fox Theater with a big tower. The word FOX runs horizontally on the tower and the clock is square.

The box office is along the front and is part of the support system for the long marquee.

There was a Fox Theater in Visalia too.

It had a tower like the one in Bakersfield but the word FOX goes vertically on this tower and the clock is round.

This box office supports the tower above.

They were able to get lots of information on the plaque but they somehow failed to include the name of the architect.

Then there was this place in Fresno. I didn’t get great pictures because of the diminishing light.

It was in great shape though.

uh, it was a Warners Theater, I’m guessing.

This is Mel’s banner. It looks like there is a big powder puff in the middle but it’s a Tribel. A Tribel like the ones in the TV series Star Trek.

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

 

Triforium

I went on a LAVA tour that was conducted on March 25, 2018. The tour’s final destination was the Triforium; that strange piece of public art that opened in 1975.

The tour began in the Grand Central Market which is an old John Parkinson building. In the Market’s basement Richard Schave, the host, gave a short overview of the Triforium and then we took off. On the way there we made a stop at Parker Center which is a beautiful mid-century modern building.

This is Parker Center.

Parker Center opened in 1955. The architects for the building were Welton Becket & Associates and J.E. Stanton. It’s going to be torn down. Why?

There is a mural inside the building by Joseph Young titled The Mural of Los Angeles which is a mid-century modern artwork and depicts landmarks around the city. It’s scheduled to be boxed up and wheeled to a new location though that location hasn’t been determined yet.

Nathan Marsak, who is an architectural historian, was one of the speakers on the tour. He’s a snappy dresser and I noticed he was wearing a shirt with French cuffs.

This sculpture is called The Family Group by Bernard J. Rosenthal. It is slated to be saved too.

Evidently, there was some controversy about the sculpture at the time. Many people thought it was too ambiguous. It wasn’t clear what kind of family was being depicted. A white family or a black family?

The Triforium sits in the shadow of city hall.

The architects of city hall were John C. Austin, Albert C. Martin, John Parkinson.

Before we actually got to the Triforium we stopped on the bridge that spans Temple Street. Joseph Young created the Triforium and his daughter recounted her memories of her father and his ideas behind the Triforium.

That’s her in the middle. Richard Schave is on the left side, in the green jacket and blue shirt, laughing. The building in the background is the city hall annex.

The Triforium with the Federal Courthouse in the background. The Triforium’s speakers have ladybug covers over them.

There is a walkway under the Triforium and this plaque is embedded into the walkway. The time capsule is buried beneath it.

Young signed his work by attaching his signature to one of the Triforium’s legs.

What became obvious after reading various newspaper reports regarding the Triforium is that before it was finished many Los Angeles city council members were dismissive of the Triforium and spoke disparagingly about it in an effort to save their own reputations. One of the big problems was that in the summer of 1974 the city council voted to spend $210,000 to build the structure but the cost really got out of hand and the final price of the Triforium was $925,000 which is almost five times the original estimate. News reports referred to it as the million-dollar Triforium.

Like the Trylon & Perisphere at the 1939 World’s Fair, the Triforium was the “theme building” for the new Civic Center mall and while the $31 million-dollar Civic Center mall opened in April 1975 the Triforium, scheduled to open on August 8, 1975, fell behind schedule. It was still a “concrete skeleton” according to reports when it should have been finished and its opening date was pushed back to September then pushed back again and then again.

In October 1975 the City Council agreed, by a vote of 9 to 3, to hire a “program director” for the Triforium. The pay range was $14,820 for the first year and $18,468 by the fifth year. The qualifications for the director included:

  • being a graduate of a musical conservatory or a university school of music
  • a keyboard performer
  • have two years’ professional choral or instrumental experience
  • be able to program a computer.

Two of the “no” votes, who were against hiring a program director, were also negative in their comments. Councilman Ernani Bernardi sarcastically referred to the job as a phonograph player. Councilman Zev Yaroslavsky called the Triforium “the biggest joke I’ve ever seen.” Councilman Donald D. Lorenzen, who was a “yes” vote, said the Triforium cost more than expected but it’s finished and whether it succeeded or not depended on city support. The third “no” vote (Joel Wachs) wisely refrained from commenting. [note: I’m guessing that this program director position no longer exists.]

Two weeks before its dedication the city council voted to approve another $3,000 to promote the advertising and public relations aspect of the entire mall which brought that total up to $38,000 but the extra money was only allotted after a great deal of heated debate. Many city council members felt they had already spent too much.

The dedication ceremony, on December 11, 1975, didn’t go as well as expected. The Triforium was described as both 6-story and 60 feet. It had 1,494 Italian-made prisms and its base was constructed of concrete and weighed 60-tons. While the Triforium looked great. There were problems with the p.a. system during the dedication ceremony and according to artist Joseph Young there was an unsightly barricade over the spot where the time capsule would be buried. Afterward, Young called a press conference to draw attention to what he called the mishandling of $38,000 spent on publicity. When writer Steve Harvey asked City Council President John Gibson about Young’s claims Gibson responded by saying, “What’s the Triforium?” When questioned further, Gibson said “Oh, you mean the Jukebox. I don’t think there’s any problem at all. There’s nothing to investigate.”

The director of the Bureau of Public works, Marvin Levin, said in reference to the time capsule that the city planned to include newspapers, which detailed the opening day’s activities, but couldn’t include them before they were published — so they had to wait until after the opening day’s events to seal the time-capsule.

At his press conference Young stated that he was paid $50,000 for the Triforium but was upset his name wasn’t on the invitations or advertisements. Young also said the failure of the public address system was because “they (the city) tampered with my work. They fooled around with the sound system and didn’t consult me.” Evidently, at the dedication ceremony many of the speeches were interrupted by a sound similar to a foghorn.

An unattributed article, on December 14, 1975, titled, “An Urban Happening” had a variety of insights. First, the writer made an astute observation when he or she wrote that the future will either judge the Triforium as a great civic attraction or an embarrassment. The writer also didn’t mince words when they referred to the Triforium as enormous, weird looking and futuristic. The goal of the Triforium was to attract crowds and despite the rather inauspicious opening night the writer recounted this reaction, “At its public debut Thursday night, when the carillon let go with Let There Be Peace on Earth to the accompaniment of a panoply of lights, the audience oohed and aahed. It was nice.”

Young’s biggest mistake may have been that he copyrighted the Triforium. He claimed he always copyrighted all of his work even the murals he designed for public buildings. The city retained the ownership rights to the Triforium but Young made it clear repeatedly that he wanted a say in any commercial exploitation and he specifically stated that he didn’t want the Triforium on t-shirts. Since Young owned the copyright the city was unsure about how to use the building as a symbol. Could they use it on city stationary? In advertising? The city council probably felt like fools. They had spent almost a $1 million to construct the Triforium, they owned it and had to maintain it, but they couldn’t use it for city purposes unless they got permission from Young.

Young may have had a heightened sense of importance when he said, “To me it’s a Ravel’s Bolero, Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony and Joe Young’s Triforium. I’m proud of it. I hope the city is, too.” He went on to say that he didn’t mind if the structure was used in conjunction with the malls’ logo as long as it was done in a manner he felt was appropriate.

Young thought very highly of his creation calling it “the Rosetta stone of art and technology.” Rosetta stone or not, I suspect the City Council had grown tired of Young’s ego and wanted to put Young “in his place” because everything they did after the dedication, including their indifference, seemed designed to sabotage the Triforium’s success.

Which is unfortunate because the Triforium should be moved to a more publicly accessible spot. Grand Park or 7th and Figureora would be ideal locations. At either of those locations it could receive the respect it deserves but if Young’s heirs still retain the copyright what motivation is there to move the structure or update it? Why should the city invest more money in an object it can’t exploit as it sees fit?

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An ubran happening. (1975, December 14). Los Angeles Times, p. J2.

Baker, E. (1975, October 29). Call for Triforium chief hits sour note in council. Los Angeles Times, p. C1.

Bernstein, S. (1975, December 14). Triforium hits its first sour note. Los Angeles Times, p. A3.

Everett, B. (1975, April 28). Mall blossoms. Los Angeles Times, p. C1.

Harvey, S. (1975, December 18). Triforium’s creater sounds off, calls for inquiry. Los Angeles Times, p. D1.

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

Morgan & Walls’ Hollenbeck Home for the Aged

Before there were government welfare programs there were private organizations that looked after Americans. One of them, in Los Angeles, was the Hollenbeck Home for the Aged. The Hollenbeck opened on September 6, 1896 and the first individuals to be admitted to the Hollenbeck Home were 5 women and 4 men. A fee of $300 was charged upfront and after that fee was paid all living expenses were covered for the duration of the individual’s stay. No matter how long they stayed (lived). Three requirements for individuals who wanted to live at the home were: they had to be of good moral character, be older than 60 and they had to sign over any personal assets to the Hollenbeck Home. “Persons financially able to care for themselves” would not be accepted or “those deranged in mind or afflicted with incurable or contagious diseases.”

Elizabeth Hollenbeck was born in Germany in 1827 and married John Hollenbeck in 1853. After living in Costa Rica for many years (which included running an outpost that catered to traders) the Hollenbecks moved to Los Angeles in 1876 and made a fortune in hotel and land development.

John Hollenbeck died on September 2, 1885 so the home’s opening corresponded to the 11th anniversary of his death. Hollenbeck was described as a very wealthy man “because he possessed only the love of his fellow-man.”

The public rooms on the opening day were described as large, sunny and airy. They were “sensibly” furnished and there was a mix of potted palms and flowers scattered throughout. A life size portrait of Mr. Hollenbeck was prominently displayed and draped in smilax. Over 1,000 people attended the dedication ceremony which was held outdoors on the Hollenbeck grounds. The program included speeches by various dignitaries including Elizabeth Hollenbeck. The speeches were interrupted with musical interludes and prayers including The King of Love sung by the First Presbyterian Church, the Lord’s Prayer chanted by the choir, an invocation delivered by the Reverend Mr. Chase and Nearer My God to Thee sung by Miss Edna Bicknell.

The administration building at the Hollenbeck Home housed the administration offices, a dining room, a kitchen and a parlor. In the north wing there was also a “modern hospital” with a trained nurse and a doctor, C. W. Evans, who was on call. The dormitory wing not only had rooms for the residents but a library and a “modern laundry.” Twenty of the dormitory rooms were furnished but the others were only carpeted so seniors could bring their own furniture if they liked. The grounds also contained a chapel with stained glass windows. The windows in the front of the building faced the mountains. The windows at the back of the building faced downtown. The cost to build the Hollenbeck Home was $55,000.

In some of the images below the Hollenbeck is referred to as a Morgan, Walls & Morgan building but the son of Octavius Morgan, who was named Octavius Weller Morgan and the second Morgan in that string of names, was only ten years old when the Hollenbeck opened in 1896.

The Morgan & Walls’ Hollenbeck Home for the Aged was torn down in 1985.

The Hollenbeck on a postcard.

This image and the three that follow were in advertisements for clay roofing tile.

I found this in the Architectural Yearbook from 1910.

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A history of California and an extended history of Los Angeles and environs. (1915). Los Angeles: Historic Record Company.

For aged persons. (1896, July 31). Los Angeles Times, p. 12.

For the aged. (1896, September 7). Los Angeles Times, p. 10.

Hollenbeck Home for the Aged advertisements. (1919, April). Building Review, 17(4).

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

Published in: on March 11, 2018 at 11:50 pm  Leave a Comment  

Museum of Failure

The Museum of Failure was an exhibit held at the A + D Museum which is located in an industrial area of Los Angeles. The exhibit was a lot of fun and quite amusing.

I’m including the ticket because it has a seating assignment and it says to proceed directly to the entrance. Uh, you buy the tickets online so both elements seem strangely out of place.

The credo of the museum.

The exhibit started with an Edsel and quote from Henry Ford.

This is so cool. I know it’s impractical but I want one.

 

It’s a model of a DeLoren.

I had a Zune. Does that make me a loser?

I had never heard of a Power Glove but there was an episode of The Goldbergs centered around one.

This thing is just creepy but if you just want to sit around wearing a mask that scares people — this is it.

Skipper. My sister never had one of these and neither did I.

Pat Sajak of Wheel of Fortune said he had one.

Men = Creepy

It doesn’t look very appetizing.

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

 

Published in: on January 21, 2018 at 6:32 pm  Leave a Comment  

George Elmslie’s Capitol Building & Loan

William L. Steele* wrote an article that accompanied the photos below. Steele states that most cities want what has worked elsewhere so what happens is cities end up looking the same with a standardization in hospitals, schools, office buildings and hotels, for example, that have no regional distinction.

In Topeka, though, and because of the Capitol Building & Loan a locality was able to express itself. The building was commissioned by the president of the building & loan, Charles Elliott. Elliott wanted to hire Louis Sullivan for the job but by this point in Sullivan’s career he probably wasn’t well enough to undertake the work. The building was situated at the northeast corner of 6th and Kansas Avenues. The actual address was 534 Kansas Ave. It was a six-story building with a two-story lobby and four floors of offices.

George Elmslie was the architect of the building and Steele claims that while Elmslie was a student of Louis Sullivan and had been a partner with William Gray Purcell — Elmslie, by himself, was an architect of “power and distinction.” According to Steele, the building & loan was a small, compact building with no wasted space and because of its location where it was surrounded by “diminutive and commonplace” buildings his first reaction to the building was one of “shock” due to its originality.

This is part of a fountain, inside the building, opposite the front doors.

Emil Zettler, who studied at the Art Institute in Chicago, the Royal Academy in Berlin and the Julien Academy in Paris, was the building’s sculptor. Zettler’s work on the Capitol Building & Loan was naively simple, according to Steele, but “modern in its symbolism of the life and times which have given birth to this building.” The panel over the main entrance symbolized not only the agricultural and industrial aspects of Kansas but the idea of the home too.  Steele wrote, “The well-placed masonry piers with their flower-like finials at the main entrance are very beautiful. They are intended to express growth, with strong stems bursting into a bloom of finely modeled human forms. The figures on the south side of the building may be taken as symbolizing Kansas. Its history is suggested by the rugged pioneer, while its civic and cultural development is portrayed by the serene and beautiful woman opposite.”

On the building’s long, street-side the central panel around the clock suggests city life but the panel’s outer edges indicate the advantages of a rural life. Two of the figures in the panel are a sower and a winged figure that might be a “Guiding Spirit.”

Schneider was the individual who molded the terra cotta and even though Schneider was trained by Louis Sullivan, back in the “Auditorium days,” the terra cotta design was distinctively Elmslie’s.

According to Western Architect John Norton did the murals for the Capitol Building & Loan. (This name could be incorrect because the murals look very similar to the murals that John North did for the Woodbury County Court House.) There are three murals. The two smaller murals depict the “safety and peace of quiet home-life.” The larger mural deals with Kansas’ agriculture and cattle production.

Steele wrapped up the article by writing that this building would look out of place in New York or Chicago. I’m not sure that’s true but he goes on to write that a building of this beauty and originality can only occur when businessmen want something different and are willing to trust a “discerning” architect.

Sadly, the building was demolished in 1968.

Here it is on a postcard.

*The architect of the Woodbury County Court House is William LeBarth Steele. The writer of this article could be the same man.

Steele, W. L. (1924, September). The Capitol Building and Loan Association Building at Topeka, Kansas. Western Architect, (33)9, 99-100, plates 1-11.

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.

 

Scottish Rite Temple: Los Angeles

A staff used in the Scottish Rite ritual.

200 shovels were used at the ground breaking for the Scottish Rite Temple located on Wilshire Boulevard between Plymouth and Lucerne Streets. The mass ground-breaking took place on January 16, 1960, and was overseen by Superior Court Judge Ellsworth Meyer who was also master of the Scottish Rite branch in Los Angeles. He was assisted by the California Sovereign Grand Inspector General, Henry Clausen, and the president of the Los Angeles Scottish Rite Cathedral Association Myron Smith.

The erection of half of the steel frame was completed by July 31, 1960, and the other half was finished by the end of August. 1200 tons of steel were used in the structure and that amount of steel was equivalent to a seven-story building. The building was planned to be 306 feet by 130 feet and was scheduled to contain a first-floor auditorium, which would have a balcony, and have seating for 2,100.

Millard Sheets is credited as the designer of the building, but I’ve found no indication that he was an architect. Sheets “personally selected” all exterior marble in Rome and he’s responsible for the murals and mosaics too. A. Rossi carved the eight, fourteen-foot statues that adorn the exterior of the building on both Wilshire and Plymouth.  Each weighs in at approximately 27 tons and were “molded by Albert Steward of Claremont.”

A newspaper article indicated the stage and proscenium were larger than a college basketball court and the stage could hold 100 masonic backdrops. On the third floor there were three masonic lodge rooms, a lounge, kitchen, and a dining room that could seat 800. Adjacent to the building a 250 car, two-story, parking garage would rise.

Final cost of the building was $4.5 million dollars and proclaimed to be the “second most beautiful temple in the world” by Sovereign Grand Commander Luther A. Smith. Only the national headquarters’ temple in Washington, D.C. was considered more beautiful. The dedication ceremony took place on November 11, 1961, followed by a service in the auditorium at 7:30 pm. In the announcement of the dedication it stated the theater could seat 1,800, the dining room had a capacity of 1,000 and the building was 445 feet by 120 feet.

The Scottish Rite building looking toward the west.

While the front entrance is no longer used this is the entrance Masons would have used if entering from Wilshire Boulevard.

Below are the Rossi/Stewart statues along Wilshire Blvd. Each sculpture depicts a specific stage in Masonic history.

On the Plymouth Street side are these two statues and a Millard Sheets’ mosaic.

You can see Sheets’ name down at the bottom.

One of the large urns along Wilshire Blvd.

This photo gives a good indication of the scale of the building.

Inside the building is a Masonic room with paraphernalia from Los Angeles lodges.

The first Masonic lodge in Los Angeles was the 814 founded in 1853.

Past officers.

One of their many publications.

In most ritual work the lodge members dress up and enact parables often in conjunction with degree work.

One of the few windows in the building.

My friend Mark reluctantly went with me to the museum. He liked this framed image.

This was in one of their showcases.

The Marciano Art Foundation now occupies the space. Here’s a link to their website.

https://marcianoartfoundation.org/

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200 help in Scottish Rite temple start. (1960, January 17). Los Angeles Times, p. 28

Scottish Rite temple dedication set tonight. (1961, November 11). Los Angeles Times, p. I5.

Steel work advanced on Masonic temple. (1960, July 31). Los Angeles Times, p. I6.

Tour slated at Scottish temple. (1960, October 14). Los Angeles Times, p. B12.

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Note: I have a book coming out in the latter half of 2018 from The History Press titled: The Architects Who Built Southern California. It will be 10 chapters with each chapter devoted to a different architect (or architectural firm) including: Harrison Albright, John Austin, Claud Beelman, Elmer Grey, Hudson & Munsell, A. C. Martin, Meyer & Holler, Julia Morgan, Morgan Walls & Clements and Alfred F. Rosenheim.